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LONDON'S 
HOSPITALS 



BRIEF HISTORIES 
OF SOME OF THE 
. . PRINCIPAL . . 
HOSPITALS OP 
THE METROPOLIS 



. . Presented by the Proprietors of . . 
"THE HOSPITAL" to visitors at the 
XVI 1th International Congress of Medicine 
. . . held at the Imperial Institute, . . . 
London, August, 1913. 



LONDON'S 
HOSPITALS 






BRIEF HISTORIES 
OF SOME OF THE 
. . PRINCIPAL . . 
HOSPITALS OF 
THE METROPOLIS 



Published by 

"THE HOSPITAL" 

The Hospital Building, 28/29, Southampton 
Street, Strand, London. 



(All Rights Resefued.) 



PREFACE 

The removal of King's College Hospital 
to Denmark Hill and the amalgamation of West- 
minster and St. George's Hospitals with the object 
of constructing a joint institution at either Wands- 
worth or Clapham present a fitting occasion 
for recording in brief the origin and growth of 
some of the more prominent Hospitals in the 
Metropolis, which have done, and are doing, such 
excellent work in the cause of sick and suffering 
humanity. 

The shifting of the population from Central to 
Outer London is primarily the reason for the 
memorable changes referred to above, and doubt- 
less the future will witness yet further migrations 
to those districts where the beneficent work of 
such Institutions can be carried on with the 
greatest possible advantage to the community. 

For the many interesting facts embodied in 
the following pages, the Editor is indebted to the 
Secretaries of the respective Hospitals, without 
whose courteous assistance its compilation would 
have been impossible, and this opportunity is 
taken to tender thanks for the help so generously 
accorded. 



August^ TQI^. 



CONTENTS 



Charing Cross 


i8 


Great Northern Central ... 


27 


Guy's 


8 


King's College 


23 


London 


5 


London Homceopathic 


29 


Middlesex 


19 


Royal Free 


21 


St. Bartholomew's 


10 


St. George's 


13 


St. Thomas's 


17 


"The Hospital" 


31 


University College 


25 


Westminster 


15 



THE LONDON 



THE important and 
extensive build- 
ings which to-day 
occupy such a con- 
spicuous position in 
the Whitechapel Road, 
are the result of a little 
meeting of seven men 
which took place in 
the bar - parlour of 
"The Feathers Tavern," 
Cheapside, in the even- 
ing of September 23rd, 
1740, when it was 
decided to begin the 
Charity on a sum 
already subscribed, 
namely 100 guineas. 
Evidently there had 
John Harrison. Surgeon been previous meet- 

(Founder of the London Hospital). ings, for at this one 
*' Mr. Harrison delivered in the lease of the 
house taken for the intended Infirmary." The 
following week a man and woman were engaged to 
look after the house for £20 a year between them, 
while two of the promoters were commissioned 
to buy furniture "for the doctor's, surgeon's, 
apothecary's, managers' and patients' rooms for 
a sum not exceeding ;,^i5." 

The house taken was in Featherstone Street, 
" for £16 per annum, with liberty to quit the same 
at six months' notice." It was decided to open 
this " the intended Infirmary " on the first Monday 
in November, 1 740, and that the staff — the physican, 
surgeon, and apothecary — should attend the house 




daily from eight to ten on summer mornings, and 
from nine to eleven in wmter. 

No medical man was resident, nor were nurses 
thought necessary ; the man and woman who had 
been engaged were apparently considered com- 
petent to carry out all that was required between 
the visits of the staff. 

In January, 1741, the Infirmary had got well to 
work. The establishment was administered with 
the greatest care and economy ; evidently every 
penny was counted ; for instance, it was agreed 
that a sum not exceeding £^ 2s. iid. be spent 
" for converting the wash-house into a kitchen " — 
not three guineas be it observed, but one penny 
(ess. 

Within three months of the opening, the work 
of the Infirmary had so increased that it became 
necessary to consider a change of abode. The 
Treasurer was asked to make inquiries, and he 
reported that a house had been found in 
Prescott Street, Goodman's Fields, which appeared 
to be suitable. Before so ** extraordinary an 
expense " as a change of abode could be under- 
taken, a call was made by the Treasurer's servant, 
on all subscribers to collect outstanding subscrip- 
tions. These he managed to secure, and the house 
in Prescott Street was leased for three years at £2^ 
per annum, and the move was made in May, 1741. 

When the Infirmary had been one year in 
Prescott Street, its vigorous growth necessitated 
enlargement, and adjoining houses were sub- 
sequently taken, until four had been added to its 
original home. By 1746 the five houses were 
costing so much in upkeep and repairs that the 
Committee seriously began to consider the 
question of the purchase of a site somewhere in 
the neighbourhood upon which to build an 
Infirmary of their own. Various sites were 



examined and reported upon, and in 1752 the 
foundation stone of the building in Whitechapel 
Road was laid by Sir Peter Warren, Bart., K.B. 
When the new Hospital opened its doors to 
patients, which it did in 1757 — two years before 
the building was completed — it had accommodation 
for 161 beds, although the approved plans allowed 
for 350 beds. 

Many additions and improvements have been 
made from 1759 to the present time, so that now 
there are nearly 1,000 beds available to patients, 
and to-day The London is the largest and probably 
the best equipped Institution in this country. The 
magnitude of its good work among the poorest of 
London's millions may be appreciated to some 
extent from the fact that last year 16,121 persons 
of all ages were treated in its wards, and 238,145 
individuals obtained relief in its out-patients' 
department. 

The Metropolitan, South Eastern, London 
Brighton and South Coast, and East London 
Railways have stations within two or three minutes' 
walk of the Hospital, and motor omnibuses from 
all parts of London pass its doors. 



The Editor acknowledges his indebtedmss to Mr. E. W. Morris's 
important work " A History of The Lotidon Hospital," for the 
above interesting facts concerning this Imtitution. 



GUY^S 



THOMAS GUY, at whose "sole costs and 
charges" the Hospital was founded, was born 
in the year 1645, i^ the parish of St. John, 
Horselydown, a district on the south side of the 
river Thames. At the age of 15 he was bound 
apprentice in the Porch of Mercers' Chapel in 
Cheapside to Mr. John Clark, Bookseller. In 1668, 
his apprenticeship having expired he became a 
Freeman of the Stationers' Company and of the 
City of London ; and started business with a 
capital of about ;^2oo at the "little corner house 
of Lombard Street and Cornhill." His business 
flourished, he gradually acquired wealth, and in 
1695 he was returned to Parliament as Member 
for Tam worth. 

The year 1720 saw his v/ealth increased by the 
sale of his investments in the South Sea Stock, and 
he was enabled to carry out what appears to have 
been a long-cherished and carefully-considered 
scheme — the foundation of the Hospital which bears 
his name. At Christmas of that year he leased for 
the term of 999 years the site on which he proposed 
to build, and during the ensuing year the building 
was commenced. 

On 24th September, 1724, Guy made his Will, 
which, after providing handsomely for upwards of 
a hundred more or less distant relations, placed the 
residue of his estate (such residue being valued 
at ;^220,ooo) in trust for the completion of his 
hospital buildings and the provision of an in- 
come sufficient for its maintenance. Guy died in 
his eightieth year, on the 27th December, 1724, 
having survived long enough to see the first portion 
of the building completed, and in little more than 
a week after his death the Hospital was opened. 



On the 8th February, 1828, WilHam Hunt, 
Merchant and Citizen of London, and for many 
years an influential Giovernor of the Hospital, 
added a codicil to his Will, by which, after provid- 
ing for certain annuities and bequests, he left the 
residue of his property to the "Treasurer and 
Governors of Guy's Hospital for the benefit and 
purposes of that Institution." In the following 
year Hunt died, and his estate realized ;^20o,ooo, of 
which ;^i8o,ooo came to the funds of the Hospital. 
Out of this munificent bequest the Governors were 
enabled to acquire the freehold of the large site to 
the south of the original buildings, and on part 
thereof to erect the vast structure (Hunt's House) 
which was commenced in 1850 and completed in 
1 87 1. Many other additions and alterations 
have been made to the Hospital buildings within 
the 186 years of its history. 

Chiefly by means of the endowment pro- 
vided by the orig- 
inal Founder, the 
Hospital was enabled 
to do its work from 
1725 until 1883 with- 
out appealing for 
public support. Then 
came a time when 
the annual value of 
its endowment, in- 
vested according to 
the Founder's Will in 
agricultural estate,di- 
minished by one-half. 

The Hospital is 
situated in St. 
Thomas' Street, a few 
minutes' walk south 
of London Bridge. Old Gateway to Guy's. 




9 



ST. BARTHOLOMEW'S 




IN the year 1123 St. Bar- 
tholomew's Hospital 



was founded in its 
present position, in fulfil- 
ment of a vow made in 
Rome, during illness, by 
Rahere, a Canon Regular 
of St. Austin, who also 
founded the Priory of St. 
Bartholomew. With the 
aid of Richard de Belmeis, 
Bishop of London, he ob- 
tained from King Henry I. 
a grant of the land on 
which the Hospital stands. 
In the reign of Henry II. 
JohnBocointe, William Fitz- 
Sabelline, and Hersent, 
the wife of Geoffrey on St. 
Loy, gave one adjoining 

?iece of land, and Michael de Valencins another, 
'urther additions were made during the twelfth 
century and later periods, the last being the pur- 
chase of an acre and a half of the land of Christ's 
Hospital, on which the new out-patient department 
and quarters for the resident staff have been erected. 
The corporate body of the Hospital and the 
staff for attendance upon the patients were for many 
centuries identical, and consisted of a master, eight 
brethren, and four sisters. They were subject to 
the rule of St. Austin. The master when elected 
was presented to the Prior of St. Bartholomew's 
in Smithfield ; or, if he refused institution, to the 
Bishop of London ; and the assent of the Prior 
and Canons was required before anyone could 



Henry VIH's Gateway. 



become a member of the Hospital Society. From 
the beginning St. Bartholomew's was a Hospital 
for the sick, and not an almshouse ; this is dis- 
tinctly expressed in the grant of privileges by 
Edward III. 

The Hospital and its revenues subsequently 
passed into the possession of Henry VHI., who, 
in 1544, at the petition of Sir Richard Gresham, 
Lord Mayor of London, refounded it by Royal 
Charter. In 1547 a fresh Charter was granted, 
which gave back to the foundation the greater 
portion of its former revenues. 

At the time of Henry VIII.'s Charter, St. Bar- 
tholomew's contained loo beds, and since that 
period its accommodation for in-patients has 
increased to seven times its original capacity, 
while the addition of an out-patient department 
has been the means of extending its benefits to a 
further 150,000 patients every year. 

For some years following the Charter of 1 547, 
Thomas Vicary, serjeant-surgeon to Henry VIII., 
took an active part in the superintendence of the 
Hospital. Shortly after the second foundation the 
staff consisted of a physician and three surgeons ; 
the first physician being Dr. Roderigo Lopus, and 
the first three surgeons William Cartar, George 
Bailey, and Thomas Vaughan. 

Harvey, the discoverer of the circulation of the 
blood, was appointed physician to the Hospital 
on 14th October, 1609, and held this office for 
thirty-four years. The principles as to the admis- 
sion of patients, and the length of time they should 
remain under treatment in the wards, are set forth 
in the rules instituted by him at the request of the 
Governors, and these are maintained to the present 
day. 

The Hospital had formerly four Chapels — St. 
Catharine, near the north corner of the Smithfield 



front ; St. Nicholas and St. Andrew on the south 
side, near the out-patient room ; and the Holy 
Cross, near the Smithfield Gate ; the latter is now 
known as the Church of St. Bartholomew-the- 
Less. 

In 1877 an Institution was opened for the 
Training of Nurses in connection with the 
Hospital. 

The Clinical Practice of the Hospital now com- 
prises 750 beds, of which 228 are allotted to the 
Medical Cases, 310 to the Surgical Cases, 25 to 
Diseases of the Eye, 30 to the Diseases of Women, 
17 to Maternity Cases, 20 to the Diseases of the 
Throat and Ear, and 50 to General and Isolation 
Cases ; while there are 70 at the Convalescent 
Hospital at Swanley. Children are admitted into 
both the Medical and Surgical Wards. 

St. Bartholomew's is situated in West Smith- 
field in the City of London, and the entrance is 
within a few yards of the main omnibus routes 
proceeding East and West. It is also reached by 
tube, the nearest station being the Post Office 
(Central London) in Newgate Street, whilst the 
following stations are within easy distance : 
Blackfriars — District Railway; Farringdon Street 
— Metropolitan, Great Northern, and Midland 
Railways ; Holborn Viaduct — South Eastern and 
Chatham Railway. 



ST. GEORGE'S 



IN 1733 a number of the supporters of the West- 
minster Infirmary in Petty France formed a 

society for the purpose of founding another 
hospital at Lanesborough House, then standing 
in the fields adjoining Hyde Park. The choice of the 
site was influenced to some extent by the healthi- 
ness of the position, for Knightsbridge was then 
famous as a locality "where is good air for cure of 
consumptions, melancholy, and other infirmities," 
and indeed its reputed salubrity is perpetuated to 
this day in the place-name of Constitution Hill. 

Nowadays St. George's Hospital and Hyde Park 
Corner are synonymous terms, but in former times 
•* the corner of Hyde Park " was understood to 
refer exclusively to the triangular plot of land 
which is bounded by Apsley House, Stanhope Gate, 
and the western corner _• 

of Hamilton Place. 

Contemporary 
prints show that the 
building consisted of a 
centre and two wings, 
two storeys high, the 
front facing north and 
looking over the Park, 
from which it was se- 
parated by the great 
high road forming the 
principal entrance to 
the Metropolis from 
the west ; whilst hard 
by, a little to the east 
of Apsley House, which 
was not built until fifty 
years later, stood the 




St' George's Fascia. 



13 



toll-gates marking the western boundary of London ; 
these were removed in 1825. 

On January ist, 1734, the Hospital was opened 
for the reception of patients, and it is a coincidence 
that the new building, designed, like the National 
Gallery, by Wilkins, was completed just a hundred 
years later. It appears that from its inception the 
physicians and surgeons were permitted to have a 
limited number of pupils, and a register of these 
from the year 1752 is preserved in the Medical 
School. In 1 83 1 lectures were delivered regularly 
in the Hospital itself. Before that date Students 
had been able to attend the Windmill Street School, 
where the celebrated John Hunter delivered lec- 
tures on surgery, and where they could learn 
anatomy, which was also taught at Lane's School 
in Grosvenor Place, and later on in Kinnerton 
Street; in its modern form the Medical School was 
inaugurated within the walls of the Hospital in 
1868. 

St. George's Hospital can boast of associations 
with many celebrated men. Among the members 
of its staff in bygone days are enrolled the names 
of Cheselden; of John Hunter, the founder of 
modern surgery ; Matthew Baillie and Everard 
Home ; of Edward Jenner the discoverer of vacci- 
nation ; of Benjamin Brodie, Caesar Hawkins, 
Bence-Jones, Prescott Hewett, and Thomas Young. 

On the loth of last month the Governors decided 
to amalgamate with the Westminster Hospital, and 
to rebuild a joint Institution either at Clapham or 
Wandsworth ; this decision resulted from the fact 
that the Hospital on its present site is no longer 
in direct touch with the poor. 

Hyde Park Corner is easily reached from all 
parts of London and the Suburbs ; motor omni- 
buses pass the spot from every quarter of the 
Metropolis. 

'4 



WESTMINSTER 



THIS Institution was 
founded in 1719 in 
Petty France, West- 
minster, and claims to be 
the first Hospital in this 
country established and 
entirely supported by 
voluntary contributions. 
In 1724 it removed 
to Chapel Street, West- 
minster; and again, owing 
to its rapidly growing 
work, fresh premises were 
taken in James Street, 
Buckingham Gate, in 1734, 
where the accommodation 
was increased to 90 beds. 
Even this proved in- 
adequate for the needs of 
Gothic Entrance. the poor, and, at that 

period, densely populated district in which the 
Hospital was situated. Consequently the Com- 
mittee determined to build a larger and more 
modern Institution, and in 1834 a site was 
purchased in Broad Sanctuary, opposite West- 
minster Abbey, where the present building was 
erected, and in order that this might be in 
keeping with neighbouring structures, it was 
designed in semi-gothic style. 

To pay for the purchase of the site and the 
completion of the building, a large portion of the 
capital of the Charity was sold at this time ; but for 
want of funds several of the wards remained 
unoccupied for many years. Further extensions 
were undertaken in 1886 and 1900, so that the 




Hospital to-day has no less than 213 beds. 

Owing to the shifting of the population of the 
neighbourhood to Outer London, the committees 
of Westminster and St. George's Hospitals have 
recently decided to amalgamate, with the object of 
building a joint Hospital in South London, where 
it is felt that the work of the Institutions will be 
carried on more effectively, and with greater service 
to the community. 

The Hospital is within ten minutes' walk 
of Victoria Station (L.B. & S.C., S.E. «& C, and 
District Railways), and two or three minutes of 
Westminster Bridge (District Railway), while 
motor omnibuses from all parts of London pass 
the Institution. 



16 



ST. THOMAS'S 



THE exact date of the origin of the Hospital of 
St. Thomas is more or less lost in antiquity, 
although records show that it was granted a 
Charter in 1228 as an Institution for the relief of 
the Sick. It is believed that it replaced a very 
much older establishment in the neighbourhood, 
administered and controlled by the Prior of 
Southwark. Of St. Thomas's early days there is 
very little information, but it seems to have 
carried on its work with more or less efficiency 
under various administrations until the seven- 
teenth century, when it appears to have been 
under fairly good control and well supported. In 
1704 Thomas Guy (the founder of Guy's Hospital) 
became a Governor and associated 
himself with the management, and 
for some years after his death Guy's 
and St. Thomas's worked in unison, 
under the name of the United or 
Borough Hospitals. 

In 1862, the RailwayCompanies 
having acquired the site of the old 
Hospital in St. Thomas's Street, 
Borough, for the sum of ;,^296,ooo, 
the Institution removed to its present 
imposing site in Lambeth on the 
South Bank of the River Thames, 
opposite the Houses of Parliament, 
and the new buildings were opened 
by Queen Victoria in 187 1. 

The nearest Railway Stations 
are Waterloo (L. and S.W. Railway), 
and Westminster Bridge (District 
Railway). 




17 



Entrance to old St. 

Thomas's Hospital 

(18th century)* 



CHARING GROSS 



IN the year 1815, Dr. Behjamiii 
Golding opened his house in 
Leicester Place to such per- 
sons as desired gratuitous advice, 
and prescribed for all appli- 
cants from eight o'clock in the 
morning until one o'clock in the 
afternoon. 

From such humble begin- 
nings was established, in the pro- 
gress of time (1827), the institution 
now known as Charing Cross 
Hospital. The work which was 
commenced without any patron- 
age than that of the sympathy 
and aid of private friends of the 
Founder, had grown so rapidly 
through his able administration 
^ _ ^^ that, in the Annual Report for 

A Corner of Channg Cross, t^g y^^j. preceding his death in 

1863, it was shown that since its inception 30,120 
patients actually had occupied beds in the Hospital, 
and 320,129 patients had received relief. 

Since that time many important changes have 
been eifected, both in its structure and administra- 
tion, and to-day Charing Cross is one of the fore- 
most of London's Hospitals. The enormous 
growth of its good work may be appreciated from 
the fact that last year 2,118 patients were received 
into its wards, whilst some 24,673 out-patients 
obtained relief. 

The Institution is situated in Agar Street, 
Strand, a few minutes' walk from Charing Cross 
Station ; it is also easily reached by motor-omnibus 
from all parts of the Metropolis and the Suburbs. 




I8 



MIDDLESEX 



THIS Hospital was founded in August, 1745, to 
provide for the needs of the bick poor ot the 

inhabitants of the then populous districts of 
Soho and St. Giles. For ten years it consisted of two 
houses in Windmill Street, which had been acquired 
at a rental of £-y^ a year, and during the first year 
of its existence it was styled "The Middlesex 
Infirmary." 

In 1750 the incommodious and inadequate 
character of the Windmill Street premises caused 
the Governors to appeal for subscriptions to a 
Building Fund, and at length they were in a 
position to carry out the rebuilding of the Institu- 
tion. A convenient site was selected in the Mary- 
lebone Fields, and the building was commenced 
after the design of J. Pain, Esq., Architect. On 
May 15th, 1755, the first 
stone was laid by the Earl 
of Northumberland, and 
since that date the history 
of the Institution can 
almost be traced in a 
simple recital of the changes 
in its fabric, indicative as 
these are of unwearied en- 
deavour to keep the Hospital 
abreast of every advance 
made in the care of the 
sick and the treatment ot 
disease. 

The present building, 
situated in Mortimer 
Street, W., contains 440 beds 
for the reception of medical, 
surgical, and gynsecological 




Entrance to Middlesex Hospital. 



>? 



cases. There are also special wards for Maternity 
Patients and for diseases of the Skin, Eye, Ear, 
Throat, and Nose. It is interesting to note that with 
very little, if any, material change the constitution 
which was framed at its origin has been maintained 
for The Middlesex Hospital to the present day. 

In connection with the Hospital there is a Con- 
valescent Home at Clacton-on-Sea, Essex, con- 
taining 95 beds for patients who have been under 
treatment at the parent Institution. 

The Cancer Department is a special and unique 
feature of the Hospital ; it consists of two parts ; 
Research Laboratories devoted to the study of 
malignant disease, and wards containing 90 beds 
for the reception of Cancer patients. 

Attached to the Hospital is a Medical School, 
a Residential College for Students, and a Trained 
Nurses' Institute. 

The Institution stands close to Oxford Circus 
and may easily be reached by 'bus or tube. Goodge 
Street Station on the Highgate, Hampstead, and 
Charing Cross Tube is within two minutes' walk 
of the Hospital buildings. 



39 




Arms of the Royal Free. 



ROYAL FREE 

IN the winter of 1827, a 
poor destitute girl, 
under eighteen years 
of age, was found after 
midnight lying on the 
steps of St. Andrew's 
churchyard, Holborn, act- 
ually perishing through 
disease and want. She 
was a total stranger in 
London without a friend, 
and died two days after- 
wards unrecognised by 
any human being. This 
distressing event being 
witnessed by the late Mr. 
William Marsden, surgeon, who had been much 
impressed by the difficulty and danger arising to 
the sick poor from the system of requiring letters 
of recommendation before admission to the Volun- 
tary Hospitals, and of having appointed days only 
of admission, he at once determined to set about 
founding a Medical Charity in which poverty and 
sickness should alone be the passport for obtaining 
free relief. 

On this principle the Free Hospital was estab- 
lished in Greville Street, Hatton Garden, on the 
28th February, 1828. Through the influence of the 
late Sir Robert Peel the patronage of King 
George IV. was conceded to it, and on his death, 
in 1830, King William honoured the Charity by 
becoming its Patron. In the course of the same 
year their Royal Highnesses the Duchess of Kent 
and the Princess Victoria became Patronesses. 
At the death of King William IV. in 1837, the 



21 



Hospital still retained the Royal sanction ; for 
Queen Victoria, through Lord John Russell, ex- 
pressed her approbation of its work, and became 
its Patron. 

In the year 1842 a favourable opportunity pre- 
sented itself of extending the usefulness of the 
Institution, and the Committee purchased the lease 
of the present site in the Gray's Inn Road, while 
the freehold was purchased in the year 1863, mainly 
through the personal interest of the well-known 
philanthropist, the late Mr. George Moore. 

In 1876 the South Wing, containing fifty addi- 
tional beds, and a large out-patient department was 
erected. This building was named the "Victoria " 
Wing, in honour of Queen Victoria, at that time 
Patron of the Hospital. In 1879 the Central block 
was reconstructed, and provided accommodation for 
the Nursing Staff and Medical Students ; a museum, 
post-mortem room, and mortuary were also added. 

To complete the reconstruction of the Hospital, 
it remained to rebuild the front. This work was 
undertaken in 1893, and at the same time a laundry 
was built on vacant ground in the rear of the 
Hospital, and other structural improvements were 
carried out at a total cost of about ;,^3o,ooo. The 
opening ceremony was performed by the Prince 
and Princess of Wales on the 22nd July, 1895, and, 
with the sanction of Her Royal Highness, the new 
front was named the "Alexandra Building." A 
notable and important teature of the Institution is 
the number of women on the Medical and Surgical 
Staffs. 

The nearest stations to the Hospital are King's 
Cross (Great Northern Railway) ; King's Cross 
(Metropolitan Railway) ; St. Pancras (Midland 
Railway), and Hammersmith and Piccadilly Tube, 
while motor omnibuses and trams pass the door. 



KING'S COLLEGE 



FOR years King's College Hospital has stood in 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, close to the Royal College 
of Surgeons, the Royal Courts of Justice, and 
other important buildings ; but last month its doors 
were finally closed, and within a short time it is 
probable that the old building will be demolished. 
The new Hospital which takes its place is called 
" King's College Hospital," thus maintaining the 
historic association with King's College, in con- 
nection with which the first King's College Hospital 
was originated in the year 1839. 

The following extract from the Minute Books 
ol the Council of King's College gives an accurate 
idea of the origin of King's College Hospital : — 

"The Council of King's College, finding that 
hospital practice in con- 
nection with, and in the 
vicinity of, the said Col- 
lege, was indispensable 
for the complete educa- 
tion of its medical 
students, did, in the 
year 1839, take measures 
for the formation, in the 
parish of St. Clement 
Danes, in the county of 
Middlesex, of a Public 
Hospital for the relief 
of the poor, sick, and 
infirm persons, to be 
supported by voluntary 
contributions, and to 
which the students of 
Medicine and Surgery 
belonging to the said 




23 



Entrance to Old King's College 
Hospital. 



College might, under proper regulations, have 
access for ever." 

During the eighty years of its history the Medical 
School of King's College Hospital has earned fame 
under the guidance of such renowned men as 
Dr. Robert Bentley-Todd, Sir William Bowman, 
Dr. George Budd, Mr. Richard Partridge, Sir 
William Fergusson, Sir Thomas Watson, Dr. A. 
Farre, Sir George Johnson, Dr. Lionel Beale, Mr. 
John Wood, Sir William Overend Priestley, Sir 
Alfred Garrod, Lord Lister, and other great 
physicians and surgeons. 

By the provisions of the King's College, London 
(Transfer) Act, of 1908, the Corporation of the 
Hospital were directed to build a new Hospital and 
Medical School " in accordance with the highest 
standard of modern requirements, as obtaining at 
the appointed day." 

The plans of Mr. W. A. Pite, F.R.I. B.A., were 
selected by the Governing Body, and the founda- 
tion stone of the new Hospital was laid by King 
Edward VH. on July 20th, 1909. 

The Hospital at Denmark Hill is easy of 
access from all parts of London. Denmark Hill 
Station, on the L.B. and S.C., and S.E. and C. 
Railways, is quite close, while electric trams 
from the Thames Embankment and Victoria pass its 
gates. 



24 



UNIVERSITY COLLEGE 




Renaissance Doorway. 



IN the early part of the 
nineteenth century 
the London Univer- 
sity was founded in Gower 
Street, and on September 
8th, 1828, a Dispensary 
opened its doors at No, 4, 
George Street, Euston 
Square, for the relief of 
the sick and suffering, and 
to serve as a Medical 
School for students quali- 
fying for the London 
Degree. In the following 
year the rapidly-increas- 
ing number of students, 
and the urgent needs of 
a district with a population of nearly half a million, 
convinced the promoters of the Dispensary Scheme 
that a Hospital was necessary in connection with 
the University. Plans were accordingly prepared 
for a building to contain 100 beds, and a site having 
been provided by the Council, the foundation stone 
of the Institution was laid by the Duke of Somerset 
on May 22nd, 1833. The structure, designed by 
Mr. Ainger, was intended ultimately to accommodate 
230 patients ; but at that time only the central block 
was completed, which provided 130 beds, and the 
Hospital was opened on November 1st, 1834. 

The government of the Hospital was vested in 
the Council, and the clinical fees devoted to the 
support of the charity. When the latter had been 
discharged, two-thirds of the fees were to be paid to 
the Medical Officers, and the remaining third to the 
University treasury. 



25 



To meet the demand for additional accommo- 
dation, a building fund was inaugurated, and the 
year 1837 was marked by a change in the original 
title of the Hospital from the "North London" to 
'• University College Hospital." This was sub- 
sequently changed to that which it now bears — 
** The North London or University College 
Hospital." 

Her Majesty Queen Victoria became a Patron 
of the Hospital soon after her accession in 1837, 
and between the years of 1838 and 1841 the South 
Wing was completed ; at the same time suitable 
provision was made for out-patients. 

The North Wing, built in 1846, provided room 
for fifty beds, which enabled the authorities to 
establish separate wards for medical and surgical 
cases ; to institute a department for the treatment 
of ophthalmic diseases, and furnish a new dispensary 
and waiting-room for out-patients. 

In order to make room for the increasing 
number of patients, it was determined to rebuild 
the Institution, and a Mansion House Meeting was 
held in 1884, which resulted in the estabhshment of 
a " Jubilee Endowment and Building Fund," and an 
*'01d Students' Jubilee Fund." On June 21st, 
1898, the foundation stone was laid by the Prince 
of Wales, and the new building completed in 1905. 

The site of the Hospital is a square bounded 
by Gower Street, Grafton Street, Huntley Street, 
and the University Street. The style of the 
architecture is a free treatment of Renaissance. 
The building rises in the form of a diagonal cross 
7ott. above the level of the street, and the grand 
tower in the Central Block reaches a height of 140ft. 
The cruciform plan of the main structure is retained 
in each of the wards, and ensures to the patient a 
maximum amount of sunshine and air. 



GREAT NORTHERN CENTRAL 



THIS Hospital dates its origin from the estab- 
lishment in 1856 of a little institution carried 
on in a private house in York Road, King's Cross, 
under the name of the Great Northern Hospital, and 
known locally as the King's Cross Hospital. As a 
hospital it would doubtless now be considered 
beneath contempt ; but everything must have a 
beginning, and by 1862 larger premises in the 
Caledonian Road were obtained, and the Institution 
began to take a more important position. In 1867 
there was accommodation for 32 In-patients, and, 
although slight additions were made to the Hospital 
from time to time, the building was always inade- 
quate. In January, 1883, at a public meeting held at 
the Highbury Athenaeum, under the presidency ot 
the then Duke of Westminster, who w^as supported 
by the late Marquis of Salisbury, it was determined 

that steps be taken to 

establish a new Hospital 
for North London, and 
negotiations were opened 
between the promoters 
and the Committee of 
the little hospital in Cale- 
donian Road. 

As a result it was 
agreed to join forces, and 
a new building was com- 
menced in 1886 and finally 
completed in 1889. At 
that time the Hospital 
provided for 150 patients 
and had a staff of 25 
nurses. Successive exten- 
sions to the building have 




27 



Entrance to Great Northern 



Central. 



been effected, and at the present day there is 
accommodation for 185 In-patients, and a Nursing 
Staff of 60 in number. 

In 1908 Mr. Francis Reckitt, J. P., gave ;^io,ooo 
to build a Convalescent Home, and with this sum a 
very handsome and well equipped building was 
erected at Clacton-on-Sea, Essex, viz., the Reckitt 
Convalescent Home, which contains accommodation 
for 28 patients. 

A distinctive feature of the Great Northern 
Central Hospital is the Pay Wards, which consist 
of a set of 15 rooms containing 17 beds for private 
patients. Persons admitted to these wards must 
be persons who cannot afford the necessary surgical 
or medical treatment at their own homes, and 
subject to this condition they are admitted at an 
inclusive tee ranging from 25s. to £2 2s. per week, 
being attended gratuitously by the Honorary Medical 
Staff of the Hospital. 

The present building is in the Holloway Road, 
and is reached by the Piccadilly and Brompton 
Tube (Holloway Road Station), or by motor 
omnibus from all parts of the Metropolis. 



28 



LONDON HOMCEOPATHIG 



FOUNDED more than 
fifty years ago, for 
the treatment of the 
sick poor, according to the 
Medical principle known 
as Homoeopathy, this 
Institution is unique. It 
is also one of the 
old-established general 
Hospitals of London ; 
investigation shows that 
of 123 hospitals in the 
metropolis, 84 are its 
juniors. 

The very site of the 
Hospital has some his- 
toric interest. In the 
early thirties of the last 
century the great anti- 
slavery struggle was in 
progress with Wilber- 
force, Fowell Buxton, and Sharp as its most 
prominent leaders — inspired by Zachary Macaulay, 
the father of England's most fascinating historian. 
In those days Bloomsbury was a compara- 
tively fashionable neighbourhood, and No. 52, Great 
Ormond Street, was Zachary Macaulay's residence, 
the headquarters of the movement, and the early 
home of Thomas Babbington Macaulay. In the 
year 1859 this historic house passed into the 
hands of the Governors of the London Homoeo- 
pathic Hospital. Unfortunately, however, the 
interesting old house had to be sacrificed when, 
in 1893, it became necessary to rebuild the 
Institution. 















™^7/ 


bF] Av \ •, /*7^^M 






*'ji[\'' ^flifiKr'-i 


ni«f> 


fff 




• \M^ 


ni' 




J^^Bmii 








-f 


fe,... 111.111 """" ..II. Ti 


w 




%J^ 


|L&-..,-.._t^3mw 




c& 


r:,yjM:_" :jiimm 



Doorway of the New Hospital. 



29 



The foundation stone of the new building was 
laid on June 23rd, 1893, by Her Royal Highness the 
Princess Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck, and it 
was ceremonially opened for patients on July 9th, 
1895, ^Iso by Her Royal Highness the Princess 
Mary. 

The New Hospital at once stepped into the 
front rank as a model hospital, and has so far main- 
tained its reputation as one of the best arranged and 
most comfortable institutions. It has been visited 
and favourably criticised by experts from all parts 
of the world, and its managers, believing that 
cheerfulness may be a distinct factor in convales- 
cence, have borne this object in mind in framing 
their scheme of decorations. 

The Hospital is near Southampton Row ; it is 
within a few minutes' walk of the Euston and 
Tottenham Court Roads, and only ten minutes' 
walk from Euston Square (formerly Gower Street) 
Station (Metropolitan Railway). The railway 
termini at Euston, King's Cross, Marylebone and 
St. Pancras are within easy distance by omnibus. 

Motor 'buses reach Great Ormond Street from 
Waterloo and Victoria Stations. The King's Cross 
and Victoria 'buses pass Cosmo Place in South- 
ampton Row, leading to the Hospital. 

Tubes — the Holborn and Russell Square 
Stations of the Brompton, Piccadilly and King's 
Cross Railway, and the Museum Station of the 
Shepherd's Bush and City Tube Central London 
Railway are within five minutes' walk of the 
Hospital. 



30 



THE HOSPITAL" 



It is felt that this little work would be incom- 
plete without some reference to " The Hospital " 
Journal, which was established in 1886 by Sir 
Henry Burdett, K.C.B., K.C.V.O., with the object of 
directing public attention to the necessity of modern- 
ising the hospitals of the Kingdom, and to arouse 
that sympathy and support which is essential to 
enable these voluntary Institutions to deal adequate- 
ly with the needs of the sick and suffering poor. 

"The Hospital" has unquestionably contri- 
buted largely to the many improvements that have 
been effected in our Voluntary Hospitals system 
within the last quarter of a century, and to-day it 
still remains the only exponent of Institutional 
life and work. Its value is enhanced, 
and can be readily appreciated, 
from the fact that it combines the 
Medical and Institutional inter- 
ests, which renders the Journal of 
the utmost service to everyone 
concerned in, and associated with, 
the advancement and perfecting 
of all that appertains to the pre- 
vention of disease, teatment and 
alleviation of sickness, and pro- 
vision for dependent members of 
the community. 

A special section, entitled 
'* The Institutional Worker," is 
devoted to all subjects relating 
to Institutional work, and such 
matters as affect the welfare of 
the Officers responsible for the 
administration and management 

of public establishments. '• The Hospital " Building. 




31 



There is a "Bureau of ' Information " in con- 
nection with the Journal, by which the accumu- 
lation of years of practical knowledge and 
experience in Institutional affairs is placed at the 
disposal oi its readers free of charge. A large 
number of plans of modern Hospitals, etc., also 
are available for inspection by those interested in 
Hospital and Institution construction. 

It will be obvious, therefore, that "The 
Hospital " is indispensable, not only to those 
connected with Hospitals and Institutions gene- 
rally, but also to members of the public, since it 
enables them to acquire an accurate knowledge of 
the work done, and the progress that is being 
made daily in every department of Adminis- 
trative Medicine and Institutional Life. 

The Journal is published every Thursday at 
id., and is obtainable from all newsagents and 
booksellers, and the railway bookstalls throughout 
the United Kingdom. It can also be had from 
the Publishing Offices. " The Hospital " Building, 28 
and 29, Southampton Street, Strand, London, 
W.C.. on the following subscription terms : — 





Great Britain 
(Post free) 

s. d. 


Foreign & Colonial 
(Post free) 

s. d. 


For one year 


6 


6 


8 8 


„ 6 months 


4 





5 


9» 3 „ 


2 





2 6 



"The Hospital" Building is situated in 
Southampton Street, a few doors from the Strand 
(see map on opposite page^. It is within 5 minutes' 
walk of Charing Cross Station (S.E. & C. Railway), 
and the Tube Stations in Trafalgar Square, Victoria 
Embankment, and Covent Garden. 



32 




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